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Allergi rhinitis(AR) is a significant cause of widespread morbidity, high medical
treatment costs,reduced work productivity,lowquality of life and can be associated with conditions such
as fatigue, headache, cognitive impairment, and sleep disturbance.
Aim of the study: To find out the relation between tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and Zn/Cu
ratioin the patients with mild or moderate/severe cases.
Patients and Methods: Ninety subject were enrolled in this study .Fifty patients with AR were
subdivided into two groups i.e. mild (comprising 20 patients) with AR , moderate/ severe (comprising 30
patients) with AR . Forty subjects who are apparently healthy were taken as a control group. Serum TNF-?
was determind by using enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Zn and Cu were determined by
using colorimetric method.
Results: Serum levels of TNF-? was significantly higher in mild and moderate/severe groups
compared with control group (p<0.01).A significant positive correlation between TNF-? and copper. A
significant negative correlation between TNF-? and zinc in AR patients in mild and moderate/severe
cases.
Conclusion: Zn/Cu ratio affect TNF-? level in patients with ARBackground: Allergi rhinitis(AR) is a significant
cause of widespread morbidity, high medical treatment
costs,reduced work productivity,lowquality of life and can be
associated with conditions such as fatigue, headache,
cognitive impairment, and sleep disturbance.
Aim of the study: To find out the relation between
tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and Zn/Cu ratioin the
patients with mild or moderate/severe cases.
Patients and Methods: Ninety subject were enrolled
in this study .Fifty patients with AR were subdivided into two
groups i.e. mild (comprising 20 patients) with AR , moderate/
severe (comprising 30 patients) with AR . Forty subjects who
are apparently healthy were taken as a control group. Serum
TNF-? was determind by using enzyme- linked immunosorbent
assay (ELISA). Zn and Cu were determined by using
colorimetric method.
Results: Serum levels of TNF-? was significantly
higher in mild and moderate/severe groups compared with
control group (p<0.01).A significant positive correlation
between TNF-? and copper. A significant negative correlation
between TNF-? and zinc in AR patients in mild and
moderate/severe cases.
Conclusion: Zn/Cu ratio affect TNF-? level in patients
with AR.
I. Introduction
llergic rhinitis (AR) according to the document
(Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma) ARIA
is defined as a symptomatic disorder of the nose,
induced after allergen exposure due to an
immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated inflammation of the
membranes lining the nose [1]. The classic symptoms of
allergic rhinitis are rhinorrhoea, sneezing, nasal
congestion and nasal itching [2]. ARIA classification of
AR is according to, duration of symptoms: persistent
and intermittent, severity of symptoms: mild,
moderate/severe [3]. Mild AR (no impairment of, sleep,
daily activities, leisure or sport, school or work and
symptoms not troublesome). In Moderate/severe AR,
One or more of the following criteria are present(sleep
disturbance, impairment of daily activities, leisure and
sport, impairment of school of work troublesome
symptoms) [4]. An etiology of allergic rhinitis develop a s
Author ?: Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry.
Author ?: Dept . of surgery, College of Medicine.
Author ?: Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Medicine,
University of Babylon, Hilla, Iraq.
a result of an IgE- mediated immune response to an
inhaled allergen (allergens are antigens that induce and
react with specific IgE antibodies). The allergic
inflammatory cascade has three phases [5]. First
(sensitization) in a susceptible person, initial contact with
an allergen leads to the production of IgE antibodies
against the allergen. These IgE antibodies bind to highaffinity
receptors on mast cells and basophile [6].
Second (early-phase response)on further exposure to
the allergen, sensitized mast cells are activated when
two molecules of boundIgE are cross-linked by the
allergen(antigen) [7]. Third (late-phase response) over
the next few hours the nasal mucosa is infiltrated by
other inflammatory cells (e.g. eosinophils, neutrophils,
basophils, T-cells). These release further inflammatory
mediators, producing a sustained inflammatory reaction
which may persist for hours or days. The predominant
late-phase symptom is nasal congestion [8] Allergic
rhinitis can be caused by (Common causes) house dust
mite, Pollens, animals Moulds (Less common) [9].
Previous studiefound tumor necrosis factor-alpha and
interferon gamma, soluble inter cellular -1 in bronchia
asthma and allergic rhinitis: relation with disease
severity[10]. In this study, the relationship between TNFalpha
and Zn/Cu ratio was investigated in mild and
moderate/severe cases of the disease.
II. Patients and Methods
This study was conducted in Babylon Maternity
and PediatricTeaching Hospital and in the laboratory
of

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  • Conclusion: Zn/Cu ratio affect TNF-? level in patients with AR.

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