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international journal of biotechnology and biochemistry.
issn 0973-2691 volume 9, number 2 (2013) pp. 231-243
© research india publications
http://www.ripublication.com/ijbb.htm
association of hormonal axes changes with
oxidative stress in posttraumatic stress disorder for
iraqi terror attack victims
abdulsamie hassanalta ee (msc.) (a) (e),
dr. lamia a. m. al-mashhady (phd) (b), dr. tarikhufdy al-khayat (phd) (c),
and dr. waleedazeez al-ameedy, (f. i. c. m. s. psych) (d)
(a) college of medicine, university of babylon, hilla, p. o. box 473,
babylon governorate, iraq. e mail: abdulsamie68@gmail. com
(b) college of science, university of babylon, hilla, babylon governorate, iraq.
email: dr. lamia71@yahoo. com
(c) college of medicine, university of babylon, hilla, p. o. box 473,
babylon governorate, iraq
email: prof. tarikhovthy@yahoo. com
(d) college of medicine, university of babylon, hilla, p. o. box 473,
babylon governorate, iraq. e mail: wam. psyh@yahoo. com
(e) corresponding author. e mail:abdulsamie68@gmail. com
abstract
there is accumulating evidence for a link between posttraumatic stress
disorder (ptsd) and reduced health status. the present study aimed to
investigate theassociation of hormonal axes changes with oxidative stress in
ptsd patients and control group.
ninety three subjects (82 males, 11 females) witnessed on explosion
occurred at 10thjune 2010 at the exit of public employees in the state
company for textile industries in hilla city of iraq, as well as fifty subjects
(35 males, 15 females) apparently healthy controls as a control groups.
participants were grouped to four groups according to ptsd checklist (pcl)
scores. adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth), cortisol, thyroid-stimulating
hormone (tsh), total thyroxine, (t4) total triiodothyronine (t3) and t3/ t4
ratio, were determined using elisa. superoxide dismutase (sod) catalase
(cat), glutathione peroxidase (gpx), reduced glutathione (gsh), albumin
and lipid peroxidation were determined using spectrophotometric methods.
t3was found to be significantly increased in high pcl scores group,
whereas acth, tsh, t4, t3, t3/ t4 ratio, sod, gpx, and mda, found to be
insignificantly increase in the present study, whereascat, gsh, and albumin
232 abdulsamie hassanalta ee (msc.) et al
showed an insignificant decreased in all groups of ptsd patients, when
compared to control group. cortisol levels were significantly decreased in
high pcl symptoms scores groups of ptsd patients, when compared to
control group. in conclusion, results may indicate an involvement of mild
oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ptsd due to the dysregulation of
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (hpa) axis, and active hypothalamic-pituitarythyroid
(hpt) axis.
keywords: hpa, hpt, oxidative stress, ptsd, hormone, thyroid.
introduction
posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd) is an anxiety disorder involving both somatic
and psychological symptoms that occur as a consequence to severe trauma [1]. ptsd
was defined in diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition
(dsm-iv) as the development of symptoms next exposure to an extreme traumatic
event[2]. the most common types of traumatic event reported that may lead to ptsd
are witnessing someone being injured or killed, being involved in a natural disaster,
and being involved in a life-threatening accident [3].
the symptoms of ptsd described by dsm-iv involve: re-experience of the
trauma, avoidance of thoughts and/or places associated with the traumatic event,
enhanced vigilance and hyperarousal, sleep disturbances, and emotional numbing.
these symptoms should be continued for more than 1 month [4]. symptoms that have
been present for 1 to 3 months are termed acute, whereas those that persist beyond 3
months are considered chronic. the development of symptoms 6 months or more after
the trauma is termed delayed onset [2].
the lifetime prevalence of ptsd in adult americans is reported to be 6. 8% and
the conditional risk for ptsd following trauma exposure ranges from 5 to 31% with
interpersonal and combat trauma associated with relatively greater risk. although an
estimated 75% of the population has experienced a criterion a of dsm-iv traumatic
event, only a minority of those individuals subsequently develop ptsd [5].
ptsd symptoms are currently postulated to reflect the pathological changes in
neurobiological stress-response systems, or failure of neurobiological systems to
recover from, or adapt to extreme stressors [6]. some of neurobiological
investigations in ptsd have concentrating on stress-regulating neuroendocrine
systems, such as for instance the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (hpa) and
hypothalamic-pituitary- thyroid (hpt) axes [7, 8]. however, finding on hpa changes
have not been consistent [8].
reactive oxygen species (ros) or free radicals which produce oxidative stress
result from metabolic and physiological processes, and harmful oxidative reactions
that may occur in organisms and are removed via enzymatic and non-enzymatic
antioxidative mechanisms. the increases in oxidants and decreases in antioxidants
cannot be avoided, and the oxidative/antioxidative balance shifts towards the
oxidative stress in more than 100 types of diseases [9, 10].
association of hormonal axes changes with oxidative stress 233
clinical and experimental studies have shown that oxidative stress participate in
many psychiatric disorder which may lead to neuronal loss in cerebral ischemia and
haemorrhage, also it may be involved in degeneration of neurons in normal aging
[11], epilepsy [12], parkinson s disease [13], alzheimer s disease [14], and possibly in
schizophrenia which is considered as a major psychiatric disorder. [15].
this study is designed to investigate theassociation of hormonal axes changes
with oxidative stress in ptsd patients and control group. to our knowledge, no
previous study concerning this issue has carried out in iraqi population.
study area
biochemistry and psychiatry.
material and methods
patients
ninety three subjects (82 males, 11 females) who were witnessed on explosion
occurred at 10th june 2010 at the exit of public employees in the state company for
textile industries in hilla city of iraq. all these subjects are employees in the state
company for textile industries, as well as fifty subjects work in the state company
for textile industries (35 males, 15 females) who are apparently healthy were used as
control groups.
diagnosis of patients was done according to trained psychologist raters according
to the dsm-iv criteria using the structured clinical interview for dsm-iv by use
ptsd checklist (pcl) scores self-reported. the pcl is a self-report questionnaire
consisting of 17 dsm-iv ptsd symptoms. they are rated on a six-point scale
ranging from “not at all” to “extremely. ” items are added to obtain a total score. the
higher the score, the more symptoms are present. a cutoff score of 50 was used for
this analysis to indicate ptsd status [16].
participants were categorized to four groups according to pcl scores: ?50 (a),
26-49 (b), ? 25 (c), and control group (d).
blood collection
five milliliters of overnight fasting blood were drawn at 8:00-8:30 am and allowed to
clot for 15 minutes. serum was obtained by centrifuging for 10 minutes at a relative
centrifugal force (rcf) 2000 x g.
methods
adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth), cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh),
total thyroxine (t4) and total triiodothyronine (t3) were determined using elisa
technique according to manufacturer s manuals.
superoxide dismutase (sod) activity was determined by use a simple and rapid
method [17], based on the ability of the enzyme to inhibit the autoxidation of
pyrogallol. the autoxidation of pyrogallol in the presence of edta in the ph 8. 2 is
50%. sod activities were expressed as units/ml. one unit of sod activity being
234 abdulsamie hassanalta ee (msc.) et al
defined as amount of enzyme required to cause 50% inhibition of pyrogallol
autoxidation [17].
thecatalase (cat) activityassay performedusing spectrophotometric
determination of hydrogen peroxide which form stable complex with ammonium
molybdate that absorbs at 405 nm [18]. one unit cat decomposes 1 ?mole of
hydrogen peroxide/ l minute under assay conditions. cat activities were expressed as
kilo unit per liter (ku/l)
total glutathione peroxidase (gpx) activity was measured by the reaction of
cumenehydropingeroxide with glutathione (gsh) as the reducing substrate to form
yellow color that is absorbed at 412 nm. [19]
serum glutathione gsh was determined by using a modified procedure utilizing
ellman’s reagent. 5, 5´-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (dtnb) is a disulfide
chromogen that is readily reduced by sulfhydryl group of gsh to an intensely yellow
compound. the absorbance of the reduced chromogen is measured at 412nm and is
directly proportional to the gsh concentration. [20]
serum albumin was determined according to the commercially available kits
(biolabo sa, france), based on bromocresol green method. [21].
serum malondialdehyde (mda) was determined by the colorimetric thiobarbituric
acid (tba) method. lipid peroxides break down to form mda under acidic and
heating conditions. the latter compound reacts with tba to form pink complexes
absorb maximally at 532 nm [22].
statistical analysis
all values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (sd). student’s t-test was
used to estimate differences between the groups, and the differences were considered
significant when the probability (p) was p< 0. 05.
analysis of variance (anova) was used to observe the difference among the
groups.
the correlation between two variables was determined using pearsons’s
correlation coefficients with 95% confidence interval.
results
the ages of patient with ptsd and healthy controls subject to present study are
shown in table 1.
there are insignificant differences in mean age of patients with ptsd when
compared with control group, and anova showed no differences among patients
groups.
table 2 shows the clinical variables of pcl symptoms scores and the four
subscales of patients with ptsd.
anova shows highly significant difference in pcl symptoms scores with (p<0.
000) between group a and both of groups b and c in each of clinical variables of
symptoms: reexperience, avoidance, hyperarousal and duration.
acth levels in the present study found to be insignificantly increased in ptsd
patients groups when compared with healthy control group, and anova
showsinsignificant differences among patients groups. acth levels increased with
association of hormonal axes changes with oxidative stress 235
severity of ptsd. whereas, cortisol levels found to be significantly decreased in
group a and b, but insignificantly decreased in group c of ptsd patients when
compared with healthy control group. cortisol levels were decreased with severity of
ptsd. as a consequence, acth/corisol ratios were insignificantly increased in
ptsd patients groups when compared with healthy control group, and anova
revealsinsignificant differences among patients groups. acth/corisol ratios were
increased with severity of ptsd, as shown in table 3.
t3 levels in high pcl score (group a) found to be significantly increased, whereas
tsh, thyroid hormones t4 and t3, in the remains group (b and c) and t3/t4 ratio in
the present study found to be insignificantly increased in ptsd patients groups, when
compared with healthy control group, . anova showed insignificant differences
among patients groups. tsh, t4, t3andt3/t4 ratiolevels were increased with severity
of ptsd as shown in table 4.
the antioxidant enzymes activities, sod, gpx, and mda, found to be
insignificantly increased in the present study, whereas, the antioxidant enzyme
activity cat, non-enzymatic antioxidant gsh and albumin were insignificantly
decreased in all groups of ptsd patients, when compared to control group, as shown
in table 5.
table 1 age of patients with ptsd and healthy controls.
group a group b group c group d
age mean (years) 46. 78 44. 31 44 43. 60
± sd 6. 28 5. 64 5. 16 7. 28
p 0. 11 0. 69 0. 81
95% c. i. 37-57 35-61 36-55 34-58
where sd = standard deviation, p = probability, c. i. = confidence interval.
table 2: clinical variables of pcl symptoms scores and the four subscales of patients
with ptsd.
group a group b group c
mean ±sd mean ±sd mean ±sd
total scores (1-95) 63. 26 8. 43 36. 09 6. 81 14. 67 6. 18
reexperience (0-20) 14. 26 3. 64 8. 87 3. 14 3. 62 2. 03
avoidance (0-35) 20. 17 6. 21 11. 36 4. 34 4. 35 2. 72
hyperarousal (0-30) 22. 39 3. 67 13. 42 4. 87 6. 02 4. 59
duration (0-10) 6. 72 2. 74 2. 42 1. 88 0. 69 1. 01
236 abdulsamie hassanalta ee (msc.) et al
table 3 serum acth, cortisol levels and acth/corisol ratios of ptsd patients and
healthy control.
group a group b group c group d
mean acth (pg/ml) 25. 79 24. 86 24. 01 23. 70
± sd 13. 01 16. 79 17. 05 10. 29
p 0. 52 0. 73 0. 92
95% c. i. 20. 03-31.
54
18. 81-30.
92
18. 32-29.
7
20. 34-27.
01
mean cortisol (?g/dl) 9. 62 9. 90 11. 28 12. 53
± sd 3. 43 3. 93 5. 82 5. 06
p 0. 012 0. 019 0. 33
95% c. i. 8. 11-11. 14 8. 51-11. 3 9. 34-13.
23
10. 61-14.
14
mean acth/cortisol
ratio
2. 90 2. 60 2. 30 2. 28
± sd 1. 32 1. 63 1. 54 1. 47
p 0. 10 0. 40 0. 96
95% c. i. 2. 31-3. 48 2. 01-3. 19 1. 78-2. 81 1. 79-2. 83
table 4 tsh levels in ptsd patients and healthy control.
group a group b group c group d
mean tsh (?iu/ml) 1. 24 1. 20 1. 10 1. 14
± sd 0. 45 0. 89 0. 82 0. 91
p 0. 30 0. 81 0. 81
95% c. i. 1. 03-1. 44 0. 87-1. 52 0. 82-1. 37 0. 84-1. 45
mean t4 (?g/dl) 9. 06 8. 78 8. 67 8. 42
± sd 1. 61 2. 45 2. 15 1. 95
p 0. 089 0. 509 0. 606
95% c. i. 8. 34-9. 77 7. 89-9. 66 7. 94-9. 4 7. 76-9. 06
mean t3 (ng/ml) 0. 95 0. 91 0. 87 0. 84
± sd 0. 18 0. 29 0. 26 0. 20
p 0. 018 0. 23 0. 55
95% c. i. 0. 873-1. 03 0. 81-1. 02 0. 78-0. 96 0. 77-0. 91
mean t3/t4 ratio x10-3 10. 683 10. 681 10. 604 10. 323
± sd 1. 826 2. 658 3. 827 2. 752
p 0. 543 0. 58 0. 718
95% c. i. 9. 83-11. 82 9. 72-11. 85 9. 53-11. 63 9. 39-11. 35
association of hormonal axes changes with oxidative stress 237
table 5 oxidant and antioxidant parameters in ptsd patients and healthy control.
albumin
(g/dl)
mda
(?m)
gsh
(?m)
gpx
(u/l)
cat
(ku/l)
sod
(u/ml)
group
a mean 2. 81 26. 07 244. 46 23. 76 6. 71 4. 29
sd 0. 38 6. 97 51. 21 9. 79 1. 70 0. 43
p 0. 056 0. 23 0. 089 0. 165 0. 063 0. 16
95 % c. i.2 . 65-2. 9822. 98-29. 15 221. 81-267. 1 19. 43-28. 09 5. 96-7. 464. 10-4. 48
b mean 2. 78 26. 46 240. 66 24. 13 6. 20 4. 57
sd 0. 35 9. 97 52. 73 12. 61 3. 10 0. 57
p 0. 064 0. 38 0. 112 0. 219 0. 42 0. 41
95 % c. i.2 . 66-2. 9122. 92-30. 00 221. 96-259. 3619. 66-28. 61 5. 10-7. 304. 37-4. 77
c mean 2. 74 27. 781 234. 56 25. 58 5. 76 4. 45
sd 0. 43 7. 85 83. 62 13. 78 3. 46 0. 43
p 0. 200 0. 78 0. 35 0. 466 0. 86 0. 91
95 % c. i.2 . 59-2. 8825. 16-30. 40 206. 68-262. 4420. 98-30. 18 4. 61-6. 924. 31-4. 60
control mean 2. 61 28. 24 218. 60 27. 76 5. 647 4. 46
d sd 0. 43 6. 71 66. 17 12. 56 2. 83 0. 52
95 % c. i.2 . 47-2. 7525. 99-30. 24 196. 94-239. 1823. 45-31. 32 4. 87-6. 624. 30-4. 63
discussion
one of the main findings of present study isthe association of relatively high 8:00 a.
m. basal acth levels with low 8:00 a. m. basal cortisol levels in ptsd patients in
comparison with healthy subjects. this finding is in agreement with the studies of
yehuda et al. for acth andkanter et al. for cortisol, [23, 24].
yehuda et al [23] postulated that ptsd is depicted by an inhibition of the hpa
axis throughout enhanced negative feedback. yehuda et al [23] hypothesis was
originally generated by the discovery of high cortisol suppression in ptsd patients
next to low dose of dexamethasone and of a larger dexamethasone-induced decline in
cytosolic lymphocyte glucocorticoid receptors in ptsd patients than in those without
ptsd. the explanation of high suppression of cortisol in response to dexamethasone
dose as prove for enhanced negative feedback rested on the postulation that the
dexamethasone suppression test gives a sensitive test of the negative feedback effects
of glucocorticoids, especially at the level of the pituitary. the pattern of enhanced
negative feedback inhibition at pituitary level is matching with a number of
findingrelated to the hpa axis in ptsd patients, including high levels of
corticotropin-releasing factor (crf) in cerebrospinal fluid, diminished acth
responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), and enhanced acth responses
to metyraponedoses high enough to completely suppress cortisol releaseand cortisolmediated
negative feedback inhibition, especially insofar as these abnormalities occur
in the manifestation of depleted or normal cortisol levels [23].
other study is in disagreement with the viewpoint of enhanced negative feedback
inhibition, and explains its data by a greater acth response to crf in ptsd than in
comparison subjects [25]this result, accompanied with those of low cortisol levels at
238 abdulsamie hassanalta ee (msc.) et al
baseline and after dexamethasone administration, hasdeveloped an alternative
hypothesis, that ptsd may be characterized by subclinical low adrenal output or
adrenal insufficiency[24]. as a consequence, low adrenal output is possibly resulting
in a higher acth/cortisol ratio, which would be particularly evident if hypothalamic
crf levels were high [23].
the results of present study were found that acth/corisol ratios insignificantly
increased in ptsd patients in comparison with healthy group, and this is in agreement
with hypothesis of kanter et al. [24]. kanter et al. introduced another explanation to
the low levels of cortisol when they found high levels of corticosteroid binding
globulin in ptsd, which may be partially cause for lower cortisol levels [24].
although there is accumulating evidence of an association between traumatic
stress and the onset of clinical hyperthyroidism, a little of hpt axis studies has been
done in ptsd patients [25]. tsh, t4 and t3in the present study were insignificantly
increased in ptsd patients compared to the control group. also, there are positive
correlations between each of tsh, t4 and t3 levels with severity of ptsd symptoms.
these findings in concordance with the previous studies in respect to t4 and t3 levels,
with exceptionof those results of tsh which were found to be decrease in ptsd
patients compared to the comparison group, which may be reflect the enhancement of
negative feedback of thyroid hormones [8, 25]. highlevels of thyroid hormone in
patients with ptsd, may explain the hyperarousal symptoms of ptsd [8]. the
elevation of tsh level in the present study in ptsd patients may affects by low
cortisol level which appear to be involved in inhibiting the release of tsh, when such
glucocorticoid present in high levels in non-thyroidal illness [26].
in isolation sod, gpx, and mda, found to be increased in the present study,
whereas, cat, gsh and albumin were decreased in all groups of ptsd patients,
when compared to control group, but this decreases or increases are insignificant.
these findings are agreed to those of tezcan. et al. 2003 [27].
in this study, we try to explain the correlation between oxidative stress and the
pathogenesis of ptsd by investigation theassociation of hormonal axes changes with
oxidative stress in ptsd patients and control group.
ptsd pathophysiology may also involve dysfunction of the innate immune
inflammatory system. ptsd patients have been found to exhibit increased
concentrations of circulating inflammatory markers such as c-reactive protein and
interleukin-6 (il-6), suggesting dysfunction of the innate immune inflammatory
system. women with ptsd also shown increased nuclear factor-?b (nf-?b) pathway
activity compared to controls and was positively correlated with ptsd severity.
these findings suggest that enhanced inflammatory system activity in participants
with ptsd is observable at the level of nf-?b, and that in general decreased immune
cell glucocorticoid sensitivity may contribute to increased nf-?b pathway activity
[28]. researches on nf-?b from animal models suggest involvement of nf-?b in
cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, response to neurotrauma, involved in the
pathogenesis of human cerebral infarction, and alzheimer dementia, the
atherosclerotic inflammatory disorders associated with the human brain, and in
generation of ros [29].
association of hormonal axes changes with oxidative stress 239
on the other hand, there are accumulated evidences of an association between
traumatic stress and the onset of clinical hyperthyroidism, a few of researches has
been focused on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (hpt) axis in ptsd. these
studiesand present study have shown an increase in hpt axis activity in ptsd.
especially, the peripheral measurement of both the total and the free of
triiodothyronine (t3) and thyroxine (t4) have revealed that these are elevated in ptsd
patients. in addition, the elevations in t3 are disproportionately higher than those of
t4, suggesting enhanced peripheral deiodination of t4 to the more biologically active
t3 form of the hormone (due to differences in its affinity for the binding proteins)
with increased aridity for its receptor [30, 31]. this is ensured by the increase of t3/
t4 ratio in the present study which reflects increased conversion of t4 to t3. this is in
agreement with bunevicius et al study [32]that carried out to evaluateserum tsh, t4
and t3 in addition t3/ t4ratios reflecting t4 to t3 conversion, in women with
amenstrually related mood disorder (mrmd). also, they reported that a history of
sexual abuse may identify a clinically distinct subgroup of women with mrmd with
respect to hpt-axis function[32].
previous studies showed that thyroid hormone t3calorigenesis in the rat involves
higher rates of o2 consumption in the liver, with generation of ros in hepatocytes
and kupffer cells and antioxidant depletion [33]. this enhancement of status of the
oxidative stress of the liver, which is counted a mild redox alteration due to the
deficiency of morphologic changes occurrence in parenchymal cell of liver, except
kupffer cells which undergo hyperplasia and hypertrophy [34], was found to trigger
the redox regulation of gene expression [33, 35].
since increased oxidative stress displays a strong correlation with activation of the
immune system as well as a number of neuropsychiatric disorders such as ptsd, the
antioxidant effects seem to be mediated through direct quenching of ros by increase
the gene expression of major antioxidant enzymes [36].
the insignificant increase in the antioxidant enzymes activities, sod and gpx,
and oxidation product mda, and the insignificant decrease in the antioxidant enzyme
activity cat, the non-enzymatic antioxidant gsh and albumin, in the present study,
may be attributed to thedysregulation of hpa and active hpt axes in ptsd patients.
the insignificant in the outlined results of ptsd patients in the present study may
be attributed to long term adaptation with stressful conditions caused by explosion
trauma.
conclusions
the deiodination process of conversion t4 to t3 in peripheral tissues is associated
with oxygen consumption that generates ros. also, the production of h2o2 as an
essential process for tsh-induced thyroid hormone synthesis is concomitant with
generation of ros. these two processes are altogether produce mild oxidative stress
which affects many hormonal axes. this mild oxidative stress increases the nf-?b
pathway activity which in turn increases immune cell glucocorticoid sensitivity that
leads to decrease cortisol levels.
240 abdulsamie hassanalta ee (msc.) et al
figure 1shows schematic diagram that summarizes the postulation of present
study of the association between hormonal changes and oxidative stress in ptsd
patients.
figure 1 schematic diagram depicts the association between hormonal changes and
oxidative stress in ptsd patients.
acknowledgment
we would like to thank mr. mahmod h. hadwan, miss khowla a. shemran, mrs.
ranaabdulali, mr. ali alkufaishi, and mr. hatamabdullatif for their wonderful
assistance in samples collection and chemicals supplement.
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244 abdulsamie hassanalta ee (msc.) et al

  • وصف الــ Tags لهذا الموضوع
  • HPA, HPT, oxidative stress, PTSD, hormone, thyroid.

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